Friday, March 13, 2020
In Harriet Jacobs story, Ã¢â¬Å"From Incidents of a Slave GirlÃ¢â¬ , Jacobs discusses the hardships of being a female during slave times. Things such as being separated from her family on different occasions were downfalls that all slaves had to deal with. Throughout her story, Jacobs stays strong and never gives up on the fact that someday there will be brighter days. Jacobs was seemingly very close with her mistress and their children. As Jacobs grew older, she experienced the utmost harassment from her master. He whispered impure statements and his demeanor grew worse and worse. Her mistress, because of her age and the mastersÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions, grew very jealous of Jacobs. Jacobs looking for someone to confide in had no one to turn to. Her grandmother had always been then for her, but at times like these, Jacobs could not approach her. JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢ grandmother was a very proper lady that instilled that purity upon her granddaughter. She would not be able to deal with such impure things such as the sexual harassment that Jacobs encountered.... Free Essays on Harriet Jacobs Free Essays on Harriet Jacobs In the stories expressed by Harriet Jacobs, through the mindset of Linda Brent, some harsh realities were revealed about slavery. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always known slavery existed and that it was a very immoral act. But never before have I been introduced to actual events that occurred. Thought the book Linda expresses how she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the worst off. Not to say her life wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t difficult, but she acknowledged that she knows she was not treated as bad as others. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s life was without knowing she was a slave until she was bout six years old. Her father was skilled craftsmen and so his was allowed to work for his profit as long as he gave half to his master. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died when Linda was young, so her maternal grandmother took car of her and her brother William. Her grandmother had been freed by an elderly white woman. Aunt Martha, as was known, was very loved by many including whites and blacks especially by Linda. As soon as she realized her fate in slavery her grandmother became her only female figure of who she really loved and trusted. As slavery became more and more a part of LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s life began to soon change as she learned that she was owned by a white master and his mistress and that she was to do exactly what they asked of her without exception or question. Black slaves were not seen as humans but merely as property who served as servants. They could not accumulate property or belongings or authority because they too were property often compared to Ã¢â¬Å"chattelÃ¢â¬ . No man or woman had any value except for the price tag placed on them when they entered the bidding block. However, the destiny was different for a man than for a woman in slavery. For a black man, slavery meant long hours everyday, having a family But not having any authority amongst it, dealing with the constant reminder that he as a slave could not protect his wife or children form any harm done by the master, and that if he ever disobeyed he... Free Essays on Harriet Jacobs In Harriet Jacobs story, Ã¢â¬Å"From Incidents of a Slave GirlÃ¢â¬ , Jacobs discusses the hardships of being a female during slave times. Things such as being separated from her family on different occasions were downfalls that all slaves had to deal with. Throughout her story, Jacobs stays strong and never gives up on the fact that someday there will be brighter days. Jacobs was seemingly very close with her mistress and their children. As Jacobs grew older, she experienced the utmost harassment from her master. He whispered impure statements and his demeanor grew worse and worse. Her mistress, because of her age and the mastersÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions, grew very jealous of Jacobs. Jacobs looking for someone to confide in had no one to turn to. Her grandmother had always been then for her, but at times like these, Jacobs could not approach her. JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢ grandmother was a very proper lady that instilled that purity upon her granddaughter. She would not be able to deal with such impure things such as the sexual harassment that Jacobs encountered....
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Best Practices for Network Security is the Topic - Essay Example In the absence of security policy, the availability of network for individuals and organizations can be compromised. It is important for users of networks to develop a sound security strategy, which involves paying close attention to the reality of internet speed, changes in technology and other realities of the technology world. Users need to know how and what to ensure network security (Convery, 2004). Individuals and organizations ought to take security management, planning, the design of procedures, and policy development in order to protect themselves from compromised security. Due to rapid technological advancements, network security is faced with new challenges frequently and this can significantly compromise the privacy and security of users. Therefore, it is important for organizations and individuals to meet the challenges of network and computer security by adopting best practices (Pauzet, 2011). In order to have an understanding of network security, this paper will discus s the best practices for network security. The first best practice for network security is the creation of usage policy statements. It is important for organizations and other users to create usage policy statements outlining the roles and responsibilities of users with respect to security. The starting point should by the establishment of a general policy that covers all data and network systems within the company (Juels and Oprea, 2013). Such a policy should outline the general user community with the security policy understanding, its aims, and guidelines to improve their security practices, as well as the definitions of their responsibilities to security. Along with the creation of usage policy statements, a company should create a partner acceptable use statement providing partners with an understanding of the information that they have, the conduct of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees, and the expected disposition of the information available to them. It is important for the comp any to describe explicitly any particular acts that have been noted as security attacks and the punitive actions that will be meted in an event of detection of security attack (Pearce, Zeadally, and Hunt, 2013). The final aspect in this regard is the establishment of an administrator acceptable use statement in explaining the rules and procedures for privilege review, policy enforcement, and user account administration. In an event that a company has particular policies regarding the handling of data or user passwords, it should present those policies clearly (Dey et al, 2012). The second best practice for network security is delivering corporate security training and awareness. Since it is the responsibility of all employees to ensure network security is achieved, it is important that they should be educated about the acceptable and responsible usage of networks and other corporate resources. There is need to train them on network security including aspects of password policies. Th ey should be invited to training sessions on network security after a certain duration of time (Liska, 2003). During these sessions, employees should receive training about the do and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts of various network and computer usage that may compromise network security. For example, they can be taught about what they should do or not do in instant messaging.Ã
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Storm Drainage Design Project Study - Essay Example As we go along this course work ,we will be able to understand what hydrographs are. The graphs above are the results of the Cynon river study data. The study took 4 days to finish nonstop. The measurements of the river height and the discharge are done every hour for 96 hours. The rainfall was plotted using the bar graph and the discharge was plotted using the line graph. In the analysis of the rainfall, you will notice that the rainfall is fluctuating. It is not as though there is a steady rise in the rainfall. The line graph shows the rise of discharge of water in the river, As the rainfall increases, the discharge also increases. The graph satisfy the components of a hydrograph. From the start of the study, you will notice that there is almost a steady flow of water in the river. That means that there is no increase in rainfall. At the start of the 44th hour, the water start to rise. This part of the graph is called the rising limb. This is the part of a hydrograph when water rises too the point of peak discharge. After it reached the peak point, the water stars to recede and this part is called the falling limb or the receding limb. This part denotes that rainfall is finally over and that the accumulated water in the river starts to stabilize again. The part of a hydrograph that is the highest point is called the peak discharge.. this is when there is the greatest amount of water in the river. The lag time is the period of time taking place between the peak rainfall and peak discharge. Computations By the application of the Manning's Formula, we will be able to get the value of breadth b of the open channel with the following data Channel design Given Data Q = 1.0 m3/s n = 0.012 S = 1/2000 = 0.0005 d = 0.5 Formula to be used V = where: v = velocity Q = Av R = Hydraulic Radius Q = A S = slope A = bd n = Manning's coefficient R = Q = discharge Computations: A = db = 0.5(b) Q = A R = 1.0 = 0.5b 1.(0.012) = 0.5b 0.012 = 0.5b = 0.5 0.5429 = 0.5 = 1.0858 = (1.0858)3 = b3 1.2801 = 1.2801 = 1.2801 (1.0 + 2b + b2) = 0.25b5 1.2801 + 2.5602b + 1.2801b2 = 0.25b5 1.2801 + 2.5602b + 1.2801b2 - 0.25b5 = 0 b = 2.2104 m. The value of depth of the river is also needed in order to solve for the value of the discharge of water in the river. The acquired value for depth will help us acquire the value fro the cross-sectional area of the river. In that way, we will be able to solve for the value of the discharge on the river. Computations; Q = Av where: A = cross-sectional area v = velocity = 4.0 m/s A = bd b = 15 m. A = 15(d) R = R = v = v = 4.0 = 4.0(0.012) ==2.1719 =(2.1719)3 =10.2451 =10.2451(225 + 60d + 4d2) = 225d2 2,305.1475+ 614.7069d + 40.9804d2 = 225d2 2,305.1475+ 614.7069d + 40.9804d2 - 225d2 = 0 2,305.1475 + 614.7069d + 1 84.0196d2 = 0 By quadratic equation; solve for the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Volkswagen India Strategy Essay For all the talk about companies coming to an emerging market like India and setting up shop, no one has been more passive aggressive then the Volkswagen Group. VW is most famously known for its Beetle Ã¢â¬â one of the best selling cars of all time at over 21 million units. In a bid to move beyond the Beetle, VW in the 90Ã¢â¬ ²s started to acquire many brands and their complete portfolio is quite impressive: Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, Skoda and VW. The VW Group also owns 49.9% of Porsche and set to take 100% ownership in the near future. The linkage between VW and Porsche goes way back, VW was founded by Ferdinand Porsche. Then Ferdinand went on to start Porsche where his son created the iconic 911. Even today the bonds are strong, the Porsche Cayenne and VW Touareg share the same chassis (platform in car speak). Long Term Commitment Enough of the history lesson, back to VWÃ¢â¬â¢s big bet on India. VWÃ¢â¬â¢s foray into India started in 2001 when it launched the Skoda brand and started selling the Octavia. Around 2007, the VW Group also added Audi, Bentley and VW to their Indian product line. These cars were available by importing them individually, however servicing was always an issue since they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have official dealers on the ground in India. In another sign that VW is here for the long haul it opened a massive manufacturing facility in Chakan (near Pune) in 2009 and spent USD $500 million in the process. Towards the end of 2011, VW will add the high-performance brand Lamborghini to the mix. They will most likely unveil the first Lamborghini showrooms when they ship the highly anticipated fire breathing 691hp Aventador to India. Breakout Hit In the 4 door mid-luxury segment, the market leader for years has been the Honda City. The break out hit for VW has been the Vento which was introduced in 2010 and already has beaten the Honda City as the number 1 selling car in that segment. The VentoÃ¢â¬â¢s success is a combination of Honda lagging and VW bringing the right product to the market, namely a diesel engine. With petrol prices only going up VW was right to tap into the Indian psyche of affordability. The Honda City has been around since 1998 and all the brand loyalty it built up went down the drain once the Vento was launched and petrol prices started to rise. Honda hit back in early June 2011 with priceÃ cuts by attributing it to Ã¢â¬Å"cost reduction efforts in the supply chainÃ¢â¬ which sounded like public relations speak then reality. But it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter, by then the damage was done and the Vento took the top spot. AudiÃ¢â¬â¢s Rise Around the world Audi has always been number 3 when compared to the more well known German brands of Mercedes and BMW. However, that is changing in India partly because Audi was able to capitalize on the new designs featuring the Ã¢â¬Å"LED eyelidsÃ¢â¬ that are now copied by every other car company. In addition, the Japanese strategy of not bringing their luxury brands of Acura, Lexus and Infiniti to India was a missed opportunity that Audi used towards its advantage. Toyota which has been in India since 1997 has built a large distribution channel and could have easily used that existing network to seamlessly introduce the Lexus brand but failed to do so. Lastly, Audi got some great mileage with their feel good advertising campaign featuring cricketer Ravi Shastri. Ravi was shown sitting on an Audi 100 on the cricket field when India won the World Championship of Cricket in 1985 where he was selected as the man of the match (most valuable player). Obviously it was unplanned and Au di capitalized on the imagery. Market Segmentation Possibly the only issue with the VW GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival into India is their market segmentation for their brands. When Skoda first came to India, itÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation in the Western European countries was not very high and thought of as a sub-standard product. However, under the VW umbrella it slowly upgraded its perception and in India itÃ¢â¬â¢s often thought of as a premium brand. Many consumers gravitate towards the Skoda Superb who want luxury but want to Ã¢â¬Å"fly under the radarÃ¢â¬ and not appear to flashy. With the arrival of Audi and VW the lines of market segmentation have started to blur. The Audi A4, Skoda Superb and VW Passat are all very similar and in fact share the same chassis. And therein lies the problem, if a consumer wants to spend Rs. 30 lakhs on a car which one Ã¢â¬â A4, Superb or Passat? Summary Overall, the timing of VWÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into India couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been more perfectÃ as other competitors have been busy with their own problems. The American automotive giants are dealing with their domestic demand issues. The Japanese automakers are taking a very slow approach to India when it comes to their luxury brands Ã¢â¬â Acura, Lexus and Infiniti. Lastly, the German automakers Mercedes and BMW have been battling for the top spot for number of cars sold in India. BMW took the crown with over 6,200 cars sold in 2010, which is a very small piece of the overall Indian car market. Since the VW Group has many brands and able to target a much wider audience it will most likely lead overall sales in the years to come.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ultimate fighting is one of the most brutal and barbaric sports ever to be seen on television. Ultimate fighting is a no-rules fighting competition, designed to provide violent entertainment for its viewers. In this competition a fighter is allowed to punch, kick, and choke his opponent to win a fight. Ultimate fighting first came to the United States in 1993 when SEG began promoting it as, 'The Ultimate Fighting Championship.'; Ultimate fighting is an unsafe sport and people should not be permitted to view or compete in such violent competitions. Dr. George Lindberg editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association says, 'Someone's spinal cord could be fractured, an arm could be broken, and choking could result in brain damage. The possibility of injury is very high'; (Sokolove 1). The American Medical Association wants an all out ban on boxing and ultimate fighting. Senator John McCain, the leader in the opposition wants it banned because he is concerned about injury to the competitors (Kirby 20). In the UFC competitors have received broken arms, damaged their spinal cord, and been knocked out on several occasions. In a recent event in the Ukraine, a competitor died after he was beated badly. After the fight he collapsed, was taken to a hospital, and later died (Kodi). Cockfighting is banned in almost all states in this country, however in most states ultimate fighting still goes unregulated. Why are we allowing humans to compete in events that we have decided is too dangerous for animals (Sokolove 1)? Isn't allowing this type of event to go on telling our children that it is ok to fight? This type of event serves no positive purpose, and only increases the tolerance for violence in our society. Fans and promoters of ultimate fighting argue that fighters should be allowed to compete in any type of violent event if both participants are consenting. Isn't there a point then where all of this goes to far though? Suppose someone wants to televise the death of someone who consents to being killed. Under their logic this type of thing would be ok because everyone is consenting. We have already banned such consenting activities such as prostitution, drugs, and assisted suicide; we should just add this to the list. John McCain believes that the fighter's consent is deceptive. He says a fighter is, 'driven by profits or the enticements of publicity associated with it and unknowingly is placing his or her life at risk (Kirby 20).
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
What is fraternity? A fraternity (Latin frater : Ã¢â¬Å"brotherÃ¢â¬ ) is a brotherhood, although the term sometimes connotes a distinct or formal organization and sometimes a secret society. A fraternity (or fraternal organization) is an organized society of men associated together in an environment of companionship and brotherhood; dedicated to the intellectual, physical, and social development of its members. * Wikipedia A fraternity is a male-only association with members who are linked by common interests of some form or another. The most famous form in North America is probably the college fraternity, although it is also possible to find social and a variety of other fraternal organizations around the world. College fraternities date to 1776, when Phi Beta Kappa was founded in the United States. Many college fraternities are established with academic criteria for membership. People who wish to join typically participate in activities that take place over the course of a week at the start of a semester. Since most colleges with a system have multiple fraternities, these events usually take place during the same week for all groups, allowing people to explore all their options. This period is known as Ã¢â¬Å"rush week.Ã¢â¬ After rush week, current members of the fraternity decide which new members should be voted in. Traditionally, new pledges participate in an initiation ceremony that has historically been accompanied by hazing challenges. Due to concerns about the risks of hazing that involve dangerous activities and drinking, many colleges have explicitly banned it in the interest of student safety. Some colleges have also cracked down on fraternity parties in response to complaints from other students and the surrounding community. Membership in a fraternity can confer many advantages. It is not uncommon for these groups to maintain living quarters and private clubs that are only open to their members. Special scholarships may be available, and membership can be used for networking which will be valuable later in life. Many people also enjoy the brotherhood that comes with membership. Fraternities are often identified with Greek letters, as in the case of Lambda Chi, a Christian fraternity, and Phi Iota Alpha, a Hispanic fraternity. These letters often represent the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s motto. Thanks to the common use of Greek letters in their identifications, the culture is sometimes described as Ã¢â¬Å"Greek,Ã¢â¬ as in Ã¢â¬Å"Greek lifeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"GreeksÃ¢â¬ in reference to the members. It is also possible to use an English name, as in the case of the Skull and Bones, a notorious Yale fraternity. Public service is often a part of fraternity membership. They usually include a specific charity or cause in their mission, with members donating funds or time to the cause each year. Members are sometimes frustrated by the judgmental attitudes of people outside the Greek system, pointing to their fundamental missions of service and brotherhood to counteract stereotypes about lewd behavior and decadent parties. History There are known fraternal organizations which existed as far back as ancient Greece and in the Mithraic Mysteries of ancient Rome. Analogous institutions developed in the late medieval period called confraternities, which were lay organizations allied to the Catholic Church. Some were groups of men and women who were endeavoring to ally themselves more closely with the prayer and activity of the Church. Others were groups of tradesmen, which are more commonly referred to as guilds. These later confraternities evolved into purely secular fraternal societies, while the ones with religious goals continue to be the format of the modern Third Orders affiliated with the mendicant orders. The development of modern fraternal orders was especially dynamic in the United States, where the freedom to associate outside governmental regulation is expressly sanctioned in law. There have been hundreds of fraternal organizations in the United States, and at the beginning of the 20th century the number of memberships equaled the number of adult males. (Due to multiple memberships, probably only 50% of adult males belonged to any organizations.) In 1944 Arthur M. Schlesinger coined the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"a nation of joinersÃ¢â¬ to refer to the phenomenon. Alexis de Tocqueville also referred to the American reliance on private organization in the 1830s in Democracy in America. There are many attributes that fraternities may or may not have, depending on their structure and purpose. Fraternities can have differing degrees of secrecy, some form of initiation or ceremony marking admission, formal codes of behavior, disciplinary procedures, very differing amounts of real property and assets. Types of fraternities The only true distinction between a fraternity and any other form of social organization is the implication that the members freely associate as equals for a mutually beneficial purpose, rather than because of a religious, governmental, commercial, or familial bond, although there are fraternities dedicated to each of these fields. On college campuses, fraternities may be divided into groups: social, service, professional and honorary. Fraternities can be organized for many purposes, including university education, work skills, ethics, ethnicity, religion, politics, charity, chivalry, other standards of personal conduct, asceticism, service, performing arts, family command of territory, and even crime. There is almost always an explicit goal of mutual support, and while there have been fraternal orders for the well-off there have also been many fraternities for those in the lower ranks of society, especially for national or religious minorities. Trade unions also grew out of fraternities such as the Knights of Labor. The ability to organize freely, apart from the institutions of government and religion, was a fundamental part of the establishment of the modern world. In Living the Enlightenment, Margaret C. Jacobs showed the development of Jurgen HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëpublic spaceÃ¢â¬â¢ in 17th century Netherlands was closely related to the establishment of lodges of Freemasons. Trade guilds The development of fraternities in England can be traced from guilds that emerged as the forerunners of trade unions and friendly societies. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or universal health care. Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. Over the next 300 years or so, the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"ordinaryÃ¢â¬ people joining together to improve their situation met with varying degrees of opposition (and persecution) from Ã¢â¬Å"People in PowerÃ¢â¬ , depending on whether they[clarification needed] were seen as a source of revenue (taxes) or a threat to their power. When Henry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church, he viewed the guilds as supporters of the Pope, and in 1545 expropriate their property. Later, Elizabeth I appropriated apprenticeships away from guilds,[clarification needed] and by the end of her reign most guilds had been suppressed. The suppression of these trade guilds removed an important form of social and financial support from ordinary men and women. In London and other major cities, some Guilds (like the Freemasons and the Odd Fellows) survived by adapting their roles to a social support function. Eventually, these groups evolved in the early 18th century into more philosophical organizations focused on brotherly love and ethical living. Among guilds that became prosperous are the Freemasons, Odd Fellows and Foresters. In many instances fraternities are limited to male membership, but this is not always the case, and there are mixed male and female, and even wholly female, fraternities. For example, for general fraternities: the Grande Loge Mixte de France, the Honorable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons, the Grande Loge FÃ ©minine de France, the various Orders of Odd Fellows, Orange Order, Daughters of Rebekah and the Order of the Eastern Star. College and university fraternities Main article: Fraternities and sororities in North America Fraternities have a history in American colleges and universities and form a major subsection of the whole range of fraternities. In Europe, students were organized in nations and corporations since the beginnings of the modern university in the late medieval period, but the situation can differ greatly by country. In the United States, fraternities in colleges date to the 1770s, but did not fully assume an established pattern until the 1820s. Many were strongly influenced by the patterns set by Freemasonry. The main difference between the older European organizations and the American organizations is that the American student societies virtually always include initiations, the formal use of symbolism, and the lodge-based organizational structure (chapters) derived from usages in Freemasonry and other fraternal organizations such as the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. The oldest active American college fraternity is The Kappa Alpha Society founded in November 1825, at Union College in Schenectady, New York, followed closely by Sigma Phi Society (1827) and Delta Phi Fraternity (1827) at the same school. Other fraternities are also called literary societies because they focus on the literary aspect of the organization and its role in improving public speaking. In Germany the German Student Corps are the oldest academic fraternities. Twenty-eight were founded in the 18th century and two of them still exist. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- References 1. ^ NAACP v. Alabama ex rel. Patterson, 357 U.S. 449, 460 (1958) 2. ^ a b c d e Stevens, Albert C. (1907). Cyclopedia of Fraternities: A Compilation of Existing Authentic Information and the Results of Original Investigation as to the Origin, Derivation, Founders, Development, Aims, Emblems, Character, and Personnel of More Than Six Hundred Secret Societies in the United States. E. B. Treat and Company. 3. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur M. (October 1944). Ã¢â¬Å"Biography of a Nation of JoinersÃ¢â¬ . American Historical Review (Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association) L (1): 1. 4. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. (1991). Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. 5. ^ BairdÃ¢â¬â¢s Manual of American College Fraternities 6. ^ Several collegiate fraternal societies were founded by members of Freemasons, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, Abovetopsecret.com 7. ^ Klimczuk, Stephen & Warner, Gerald. Ã¢â¬Å"Secret Places, Hidden Sanctuaries: Uncovering Mysterious Sites, Symbols, and SocietiesÃ¢â¬ . Sterling Publishing, 2009, New York and London. ISBN 9781402762079. pp. 212-232 (Ã¢â¬Å"University Secret Societies and Dueling CorpsÃ¢â¬ ).
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The primary ethanol subsidy offered by the federal government is a tax incentive called the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, which was passed by Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush in 2004. It took effect in 2005. The ethanol subsidy, which is commonly referred to as the blenders credit, offers ethanol blenders registered with the Internal Revenue Service a tax credit of 45 cents for every gallon of pure ethanol they blend with gasoline. That particular ethanol subsidy cost taxpayers $5.7 billion in foregone revenues in 2011, according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the nonpartisan congressional watchdog agency. Debate Over the Ethanol Subsidy Supporters of the federal ethanol subsidy argue that it encourages production and use of the biofuel and thereby reduces the amount of foreign oil needed to produce gasoline, a step toward energy independence. But critics argue that ethanol burns far less efficiently than gasoline, driving up fuel consumption and that it increases demand for corn for fuel and artificially boosts the cost of farm commodities and retail prices of food. They also say such an incentive is unnecessary because legislation enacted in 2007 requires oil companies to produce 36 billion gallons of biofuels such as ethanol by 2022. While born of good intentions, federal subsidies for ethanol have failed to achieve their intended goals of energy independence, U.S. Sen. Tom Coburn, a Republican from Oklahoma and leading critic of the ethanol subsidy, said in 2011. The effort to Kill the Ethanol Subsidy Coburn led an effort to repeal the ethanol subsidy in June of 2011, saying it was a waste of taxpayer money - he said the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit cost $30.5 billion from 2005 through 2011 - because consumption remained only a small part of the countrys fuel use. His effort to repeal the ethanol subsidy failed in the Senate by a vote of 59 to 40. While Im disappointed my amendment did not pass, taxpayers should remember that when I offered an amendment to defund the Bridge to Nowhere in Alaska in 2005 we lost that vote 82 to 15, Coburn said in a statement. Over time, however, the will of the people prevailed and Congress was forced to scale back this wasteful and corrupting practice. Today, the earmark favor factory is mostly closed. Only the tax division remains open. Im confident this debate, and many more ahead, will expose the tax code for what it is - an abomination that favors the well-connected over working families and small businesses. History of the Ethanol Subsidy The Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit ethanol subsidy became law on Oct. 22, 2004, when President George W. Bush signed the American Jobs Creation Act into law. Included in that piece of legislation was the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit. The initial bill gave ethanol blenders a tax credit of 51 cents for every gallon of ethanol they mixed with gasoline. Congress reduced the tax incentive by 6 cents per gallon as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, gasoline refiners and marketers are required to pay the full rate of tax, which is 18.4 cents per gallon on the total gasoline-ethanol mixture but can claim the 45 cents per gallon tax credit or refund for each gallon of ethanol used in the mixture. The ethanol subsidy benefits multibillion-dollar integrated oil companies such as BP, Exxon, and Chevron. The First Ethanol Subsidy The Energy Policy Act of 1978 was the first federal legislative ethanol subsidy. It allowed for a 40-cent tax exemption per gallon of ethanol, according to Purdue University.The Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 increased the tax exemption to 50 cents per gallon of ethanol.The 1990 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act extended the ethanol subsidy to 2000 but decreased the amount to 54 cents a gallon.The 1998 Transportation Efficiency Act of the 21st Century extended the ethanol subsidy through 2007 but reduced it to 51 cents per gallon by 2005.Bushs signature on the Jobs Creation Act changed the way the modern ethanol subsidy worked. Instead, it offered a straight tax credit to producers, the legislation allowed for the blenders credit. President Trump Protects the Ethanol Subsidy During his 2016 campaign, President Donald Trump came out as one of the ethanol subsidyÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest supporters. Speaking in Iowa, where corn is king, on January 21, 2016, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"The EPA should ensure that biofuel . . . blend levels match the statutory level set by Congress,Ã¢â¬ adding that he was Ã¢â¬Å"was Ã¢â¬Å"there with you [farmers] 100 percentÃ¢â¬ on continuing federal subsidy for ethanol. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re going to get a really fair shake from me.Ã¢â¬ After Trump took office in January 2017, all seemed well with the ethanol subsidy until early October, when his own EPA administrator Scott Pruitt announced that the agency was considering lowering the EPA-mandated subsidy payment level for ethanol Ã¢â¬Å"slightlyÃ¢â¬ in 2018. The suggestion sent shockwaves through the Corn Belt and its Republican congressional protectors. Iowa Sen. Chuck Grassley accused Trump of a Ã¢â¬Å"bait and switch,Ã¢â¬ in reference to his empathic campaign promise. Grassley and IowaÃ¢â¬â¢s other Republican senator, Joni Ernst, threatened to block all of TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s future EPA appointments. The governors of most Corn Belt states joined in sending Trump warning him than any cutback in the Renewable Fuel Standard programÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidies would be Ã¢â¬Å"highly disruptive, unprecedented and potentially catastrophic.Ã¢â¬ Faced with the potential loss of influence over some of his strongest congressional backers, Trump quickly told Pruitt to back off any future talk of cutting the ethanol subsidy. On July 5, 2018, Pruitt resigned amid multiple accusations of ethics violations involving his excessive and unauthorized personal use of government funds. He was replace within hours by EPA deputy director Andrew Wheeler, a former lobbyist for the coal industry.